General And Minimal Access Surgery

In contrast to open surgery, minimal access surgery is performed through one or more small incisions. A tiny (often just 1/4″ long) incision is made by the surgeon and is used to insert a telescope with a video camera into a bodily cavity. The operation is then shown to the surgeon on a TV screen. Then, smaller incisions with a similar pattern are used to insert surgical equipment.

By using magnified images on a television, the surgeon can evaluate and treat the affected area. Laparoscopy is the term used to describe the operation when the telescope is used to operate on the abdomen. The procedure is known as thoracoscopy when used on the chest, and arthroscopy when used on a joint.

The most common types of minimal access surgery are laparoscopy, endoscopy, upper endoscopy, thoracoscopy and arthroscopy. 


A minimally invasive diagnostic tool called an endoscope is used to view the interior of organs, check for anomalies, and obtain biopsies. And the procedure is called endoscopy. To inspect the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, a flexible tube with a small camera and light source affixed on it can be introduced into the mouth or the anus (to inspect the large bowel).

Upper Endoscopy

An upper endoscopy is typically carried out to assess symptoms including chronic upper abdomen pain, nausea, vomiting, or swallowing issues. Additionally, it is the most effective examination for determining the reason for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

For the reliable detection of ulcers, tumors, or inflammation of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, upper endoscopy is preferable to x-ray films. When biopsies are taken from suspect locations, upper endoscopy can identify benign and malignant diseases and discover early stages of cancer. Biopsies are performed for a variety of reasons and are not always done when cancer is suspected.

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